The management tool behind Google’s success

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I  just briefly touched on OKRs in another post earlier this summer, hardly doing this key management tool the attention it deserves. The Forbes article by Christian Owens OKRs Let Larry And Sergey Build Google. Maybe The Rest Of Us Software Founders Should Use Them highlighted the importance of OKRs for startups and prompted this post.

OKRs were developed by Andy Grove, a founder and CEO of Intel, and documented in his book High Output Management. Venture capitalist John Doerr learned about OKRs when at Intel and brought the tool to Kleiner Perkins and introduced the founders of Google, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, to them to bring a management framework to Google.

OKR stands for Objectives and Key Results. An objective is clearly defined goal and one or more key results are the measures to track progress towards achieving that goal. Key results are measured quantitatively, on a percentage scale or other numeric basis. If Key Results are defined correctly there can be no arguing over whether or not the Objective has been achieved or not. The beauty of OKRs is their simplicity: I will achieve X as measured by Y.  And OKRs can be set at the personal, team, department, and company levels. They can be shared across the organization to align and focus efforts of everyone.

John Doerr explained how OKRs came to be instantiated at Google:

When Doerr put this [goals need metrics] to Page and Brin, the latter’s response was, “we don’t have any other way to manage this company, so we’ll give it a go”.  I took that as a kind of endorsement. But every quarter since then, every Googler has written down her objectives and her key results. They’ve graded them, and they’ve published them for everyone to see. And these are not used for bonuses or for promotions. They’re set aside. They’re used for a higher purpose, and that’s to get collective commitment to truly stretch goals.

As any reader of this blog, or any fellow mentor at MIT VMS knows, I’m a strong proponent of focus for startups. I’m also a strong proponent of accountability. Combining Apple’s DRIs (Directly Responsible Individual  with Intel’s OKRs should result in a highly focused, aligned, and accountable venture!

As Christian Owens concludes:

It is specificity and focus which enables all of us to stretch further than we initially think we can. Carefully choose your objective and stick with it. Rather than scatter-gunning and seeing what sticks, make sure that every single employee sticks to the following: what are you trying to achieve? How will you know if you’re getting there?



Pitch tips from a leading VC


A recent megatrend that has greatly benefited founders has been the willingness of leading venture capitalists to share their knowledge with founders. Brad Feld of Foundry Group, Fred Wilson of Union Square Ventures, and Guy Kawasaki, Garage Ventures have lead the way. (What do they have in common? They’ve all met me!). Now they are joined by Scott Kupor, the managing partner of Andreessen Horowitz (a16z), whose portfolio includes multi-billion unicorns like Lyft, Slack, Pinterest and Airbnb.

I became aware of Scott Kupor’s book via Carmine Gallo’s Inc. article Five Essential Pitch Tips According To A Legendary Investor Behind Lyft, Slack, And Airbnb. Carmine is the best writer on how to do a presentation that I know of. You can search my blog for mentions of his books, which are all highly recommended. Start with The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs, a classic. Carmine has been writing for Inc. for some time and I make sure to never miss an article of his.

Despite all the books and articles I’ve read about how to do a VC pitch I learned a lot from Carmine’s interview with Scott Kupor. You can watch the video, which is embedded in Carmine Gallo’s article. Here are the five tips from Scott Kupor with my annotations.

1. Market Size

It’s interesting that Scott puts market size first. Of the three main determinants of a VC investment, team is usually put first, followed by either market opportunity or product/secret sauce. But I find that founders have the most trouble with market size. Either they make the beginner’s mistake of taking some arbitrary, and far too large, percentage of a large market (“If we just get 15% of the entire $92 billion shoe market …”), or they muddle through some proxies for their market. Read my post Sizing your market opportunity for a more sophisticated approach.  But Scott has a unique approach:

It’s an entrepreneur’s job to be a “patient and inspiring teacher.” In other words, don’t assume that your audience—even one made of up VCs—understands your market or its potential size.

This goes back to the need to tell a story rather than just recite dry statistics or show complex graphs.

2. Team

As I tell founders, there are two questions a VC has to answer in the positive to fund you: Is this a billion dollar idea? and Is this the right team to execute it? Too often I find entrepreneurs, especially students and recent grads, focus on their academic credentials – their list of degrees from prestigious universities – rather than one thing: what expertise and experience does their team possess that in Kupor’s words “… make this team – hands down – the best team to approach this idea?”

3. Product

Here’s an interesting point from Scott Kupor: “investors love to learn and are fascinated by how something works.” He uses the term “idea maze” for the twisting, turning process that turns an idea into a real world product. But that’s understanding your idea maze is not enough! Investors want to know why your product is 10X better than the existing alternatives along the typical dimensions: faster, better, cheaper, easier to use. Peter Drucker is responsible for this, as he stated that a new product must be 10x better to displace an incumbent product. And note, VCs will tell you they need to make 10X their investment to have a successful fund. Show them enough 10Xs and you may just get funded! 10X would make a great name for a company if it weren’t already taken.

4. Go-to-Market

Like market opportunity this part of the pitch tends to be a weak spot for the founders I mentor, perhaps because virtually all of them are first timers. Those who have previously founded a startup or worked an an early stage company realize how important the customer acquisition part of their pitch is. Kupor says this is often the most underdeveloped section of the pitch, especially for early-stage companies. You need to present a combination of your business model and marketing plan that demonstrates you know how you will acquire customers at a cost that is just a small fraction of their lifetime value. In other words, profitably. You don’t need complex spreadsheet models forecasting 5 years of financials. What you do need are sound assumptions derived from a lot of first hand interaction with customers.

5. Planning

Planning boils down to one thing:  what milestones will you reach with the money you are raising in this round? A corollary of this is, how long with this round last? A range of 12 to 18 months is typical. Fund raising is resource intensive for founders, so you don’t want to have to raise another round too soon. On the other hand, if you are going to grow at the dizzying rate that VCs expect, you are going to need more funding in less than two years.

I teach founders that the job of their product is to make its users successful and satisfied. And when selling to the enterprise find a product champion who will see that by driving adoption of your product for their firm they will be rewarded. If you can make your customers successful, your venture will be successful.

Scott Kupor makes a similar point about VCs. They want to look like heroes to their customers: their limited partners whose money they are investing.  So, consider VCs as your customers and thus it’s your mandate to help them succeed by making your company a success.

Making is about iteration, not failing fast!

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I’ve been meaning to write a post about how I’m just not onboard with the startup platitude that failure is to be celebrated, and how we learn so much from failure. I have a contrarian view that actually you can learn more from success – study Jeff Bezos for example if you want to learn how to create and inculcate values and build and incredibly strong customer-centric culture. Study Bill Gates if you want to learn how a tiny company can get the best of a dominant giant (Microsoft vs. IBM). Don’t study the story of!

But  thought I was alone in this contrarian viewpoint until I read Don Steinberg’s article in The Wall Street Journal, Adam Savage Shares His Secrets of Creation, sub-titled The ‘Mythbusters’ co-star has a best-selling book, ‘Every Tool’s a Hammer,’ a new show, ‘Savage Builds’—and still enjoys blowing things up. I have to admit to not being familiar with Adam Savage nor his show Mythbusters. As a kid I was a maker, building electric motors and crystal radio sets with my dad. Later building an Altec Lansing Voice of the Theater cabinet and furniture for our tiny cabin in Oregon, including a platform bed and a kitchen table. But the considerable maker talent of my dad (an electrical engineer) and his father (a metal worker) all went to my sister and nothing I built was that exceptional. I eventually found my role first as a product manager, helping others to build stuff, then as an entrepreneur, building companies.

The closest I’ve come to the maker space was visiting the Artisan’s Asylum in Somerville, MA. and having a few talks with some guys who worked there about starting a maker space of our own. Like so many of my startup ideas, that one never went beyond a few meetings and looking over some potential spaces for rent.

So I was very pleased to read about Adam Savage’s attitude toward failure:

He discusses how a workspace represents one’s personal philosophy on interacting with the world and his belief that the trendy enthusiasm for celebrating failure (“fail fast”) puts too negative a spin on the natural process of figuring things out. He prefers the term “iteration.”

Which reminded me of the attitude of Bob Frankston, co-creator of VisiCalc, the first electronic spreadsheet: build quickly and iterate continually. Bob never talked about failing fast, he was and still is, about iterating fast.

I’m going to both read Mr. Savage’s book and search for his Mythbuster’s series, not because I’m a maker, but because I believe Mr. Savage has a lot to teach me, and to teach founders as well.



A deep dive into a game-changing startup



Virtual reality was one of those technologies like AI. It emerged from the labs and had a brief moment in the sun until total eclipse plunged it into darkness for years. Too expensive, too kludgey, not enough content, no tools for content development – a long list of why virtual reality has been a tiny niche in the vast expanse of the high tech field.

And so it remained until a totally unlikely founder – Palmer Luckey – virtually single handedly created a low cost consumer-friendly HDM (Head Mounted Display). I’ve gotten very interested in VR lately, not because I’m a game player as virtually all VR advocates are, nor because I want to watch video in the immersion of my HDM. I’ve found that VR is a great way to manage pain. More about that at some other time. Not only is The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris an incredibly detailed and highly readable history of Oculus, the company Palmer Luckey founded, but it holds many lessons for founders of tech-based startups. 

Luckey goes from 19 year old inventor living in a trailer to selling his startup for almost $2 billion to Facebook to – spoiler alert! – getting kicked out of his own company. Along the way you’ll find a rogue’s gallery of co-founders, bit players, and of course, the mega-player of them all, Mark Zuckerberg, who personally drove the acquisition of Oculus. According to Harris’ account, Zuckerberg foresaw the plateauing of the smartphone as the platform of choice and with it Facebook’s fortunes. So he was on the hunt for the Next Big Thing – what would replace the smartphone as the communications/entertainment/remote control for billions of people. Zuckerberg convinced himself that next platform was VR.

Harris conducted hundreds of interviews over three years, with inside access to both the founders of Oculus and those at Facebook intimately involved in the acquisition of Oculus. At times I found the detail overwhelming and extraneous – I really couldn’t care less what Palmer ate for lunch. But the story of the rise of the hero and his tragic downfall is totally engrossing; I plowed through the entire 400+ page book in two days. Palmer Luckey was a hardcore teenage game player who must have been an autodidact as he never took any courses in software or hardware development and seemingly learned everything he needed to know on the fly. But what he didn’t learn was how to start a business nor how to choose his partners.

Unlike Zuckerberg, who moved from dorm room hacker to a founder intent on world domination in short order, Luckey’s ambition was simply to sell a few VR kits so others could experience the VR environment he had built. But like a Hollywood starlet in the days of yesteryear, he gets discovered by a successful serial entrepreneur who virtually takes over the company and eventually plays a hand in Luckey’s getting booted out of the company he had planned to spend his life with.

One tell that was obvious to me early on was the cap table for Oculus which gave Luckey basically the exact same percentage as his co-founders, about 15%, totally ignoring the fact that Luckey was totally responsible for the first prototype. In other words, Luckey let himself be screwed from the get-go by experienced entrepreneurs who saw him as their golden goose – their ticket to riches.

I won’t spoil any more of the book for you. But even if you never pick it up keep in mind two things: choose your co-founders wisely and structure your cap table to acknowledge both past and future contributions of all founders.

As Alan Kay has pointed out, it can take about 25 years or more for a technology to go from lab to commercialization. In VR’s case it took even longer. Computer scientist legend Ivan Sutherland created what is widely considered to be the first VR HMD in 1968! In eight days Facebook’s Oculus division will release the Oculus Quest, a low cost, self-contained VR system that is the first VR product with the potential to become a mass market hit – 51 years later!




Why advertising doesn’t work as the business model for discussion sites

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Alex Hern’s interview with Roger McNamee on The Guardian: ‘It’s bigger than Facebook. This is a problem with the entire industry’ prompted me to buy McNamee’s book  Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe.! I highly recommend the book for anyone wanting to understand why the DNA of social networks – their baked-in model of advertising – is antithetical to the needs of their users.

Here’s the problem in a nutshell according to MacNamee:

It never occurred to me that there would be an asymmetry in the way that advertising works. That in order to command attention, you want to appeal to what [Tristan Harris] calls “the lizard brain”, the things that provoke outrage and fear. Things that essentially create a perception of reward. Those things, when you put them into advertising, can really be bad for democracy. Suddenly a neutral centrist idea gets very little traction on Facebook, where really extreme, emotionally charged ideas are viral.

The issue with Facebook and other ad-supported social media sites, is that their goal is very simple: attract as many users as possible then garner as much attention as possible – which they call engagement – from these users as possible, early and often. Then gather as much private data as possible about these users. This data is then used to target advertising. This works amazingly well, as anyone familiar with the financial success of Facebook can recognize. But while it works well for Facebook, it doesn’t work very well for users, especially those users who want to enter into a thoughtful discussion with their peers.

… the business model that Facebook and Google have created is something we’ve never seen before.
They were very much in the business of manipulating attention in order to get you to spend more time on [their services]. And that is a very dangerous business model for society. It’s bad for the mental health of the people who use it.
The problems are not isolated. They are systemic. They’re related to a business model that has worked extraordinarily well for investors and horrifically for everyone else. The failure to recognise that moderation would’ve been a better long-term strategy for the company is ultimately going to be very costly, because they are leaving governments around the world no choice but to bring the hammer down.
Simply put moderation does not scale to the enormous user base of Facebook – 2 billion users. Facebook never built moderation into their platform and never will. Here are some of the problems you get when you forego moderation on a discussion site:
  • Fake accounts – yes in theory Facebook requires your real identity and in fact I applauded their insistence on a .edu email address when they launched in the college market, as I had seen the problems anonymity can cause on message boards. But today Facebook is rife with fake accounts. For all you know you may be commenting on a post by a bot!
  • Disinformation – as we’ve seen in the Russians’ attempt to sway the 2016 election to Trump, it is far eaiser to spread disinformation than truth. There is only one true fact, but there are an infinite number of false ones when it comes to any issue. This asymmetry dooms any site that relies on algorithms to moderate their discussions, as facts are easily overwhelmed by falsehoods or “fake news.”
  • Trolls – angry young men with access to computers have existed for decades, and yes it’s mainly angry young men who post provocative and worse content in order feed on attention. Unfortunately few people realize that the best way to kill off trolls is to ignore them, they die of starvation. Facebook and its advertisers benefit from trolling, however, as it generates page views and engagement and concomitantly advertising opportunities.
  • Lack of helpful profiles – on the heavily moderated discussion site I frequent, Steve Hoffman’s Forums, every user is given the opportunity to post a profile and most do. The subject matter of the Forums is mainly music and music technology, so knowing what equipment a poster owns and if they are a professional musician or engineer, really helps understand their potential biases.
  • Violent and pornographic content – YouTube, which has thousands of very useful, informative and entertaining videos also plagued by content that fit for neither work nor home.
  • Fake ads – this is a great way for bad actors to make money and it cheats honest advertisers and worse yet can even damage their reputations.

I’m sure there are even more problems baked into the advertising model than I’ve listed above. But the answer to all of these problems is two-fold: verified identity and moderation. In 10 years of frequenting Steve’s forums I’ve yet to run into spam, trolling, disinformation or any other of the problems of advertiser-based social networks. Steve’s volunteer team of moderators does a great job and he makes very clear to newbies what the rules of the road are – if they are frequently flouted the user is banned.

But as I wrote above, moderation doesn’t scale well – the number of users on Steve Hoffman’s Forums is a rounding error on Twitter or SnapChat, let alone Facebook. Heard the expression, “Small is beautiful”? That applies to any discussion-based site, I’m afraid. Until AI gets a lot smarter, and far more important, until social sites move away from the advertising model, Facebook and others like them will  fight a losing battle against fake accounts, disinformation, trolls and all the other ills they fight with.

So if you are planning an online business that is going to rely on UGC – User Generated Content – and advertising based on that content, you are going to have to either keep your site small or succeed where Facebook and Twitter have failed – presenting a clean, well lit room for thoughtful discussions to take place to vast numbers of users.


Are you a micro-manager?

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I’ve never liked rules, most seem arbitrary to me. But I have to admit that every time I started a company I didn’t give second thought to two major types of rules: those governing personal leave (vacation days, sick days, personal days, etc.) and recording and submission of travel expenses. Yet at the same time I was doing my best – and I largely succeeded – to hire great people for my companies. Thus the Incarticle by Justin BarisoNetflix Avoids Rules Like the Plague. Here’s What It Does Instead, subtitled One reason for Netflix’s success: It throws the rulebook out the window. was a real eye opener for me.

The embedded assumption in having rules in a company is rules are needed to manage behavior, with a goal toward ensuring quality and consistency of performance. Yet in Netflix’s culture deck they made clear their belief that though there may be short term benefits to rules, in the long term companies that become enmeshed in rules and processes get sclerotic due to bureaucracy.

Netflix focuses on two things: hiring high performance employees and building a culture that rewards high performers and weeds out unimproved low performers. Netflix is one of the companies in the book  Great Leaders Have No Rulesby Kevin Kruse. Here is the major takeaway from the section on Netflix:

“Netflix leaders believe that responsible people–the people every company wants to hire–are not only worthy of freedom, they thrive on it,” Kruse continues. “Creating an environment where these individuals are not inhibited by myriad rules allows them to become the best version of themselves.”

There’s another way of expressing this which I had heard before, but never operationalized: get your employees to act like owners! Two great examples of this at Netflix are unlimited vacation days and no formal travel and expense (T & E) policy. Netflix doesn’t bother with the unwelcome overhead of tracking employee vacation days – salaried employees can take as much as they want within certain guidelines. Similarly, with regard to T & E expenses employees are expected to spend money as if it’s their own–and look for opportunities to save when possible. The company’s expense policy is very simple: “Act in Netflix’s best interests.”

Kruse considers rules another way to micromanage. Rather than burden employees with a nest of rules the Netflix culture ensures that they feel ownership and accountability for their decisions.

“Most companies spend endless time and money writing and enforcing HR policies to deal with problems the other 3% might cause,” former Netflix chief talent officer Patty McCord wrote in a piece for HBR. “Instead, we tried really hard to not hire those people, and we let them go if it turned out we’d made a hiring mistake.”

So Kruse recommends founders follow the Netflix model:

  • Focus on hiring the best.
  • Set guidelines, not rules.
  • Reward great performance.


Do this right, and you’re no longer managing your people. You’re inspiring them. Leaders inspire, managers manage. If you can turn everyone into a leader you will harness the, creativity, and talent of your workforce.


“I am what survives me.”


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Jane Brody, who has been writing about personal health and nutrition for The New York Times for years, might seem an odd source for a blog about mentoring entrepreneurs. But, of course, the title to her New York Times article Want to Leave a Legacy? Be a Mentor sub-titled How to make a positive impact that would keep you alive in the memories and lives of others caught my attention.

Her reading of Marc Freedman’s new book, How to Live Forever: The Enduring Power of Connecting the Generations inspired her to write this column about mentoring. Mr. Freedman, the founder of and co-founder of Experience Corps, both dedicated to helping older adults find purpose later in life, calls himself a social entrepreneur. Mr. Freedman’s latest endeavor, now in its second year, is called Generation to Generation, a foundation-supported nationwide project that aims to “build a movement of older people focused on the well-being of future generations.”

Here’s the quote that hit the heart of the matter for me:

“The real fountain of youth is the fountain with youth,” Mr. Freedman said. “It’s spending less time focused on being young and more time focused on being there for the next generation.” As the developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst Erik Erikson said nearly 70 years ago, “I am what survives me.”

The bulk of the article is about how older people, like me, benefit from staying engaged with others and ways to do that. Certainly it’s been a privilege to be a mentor at MIT in several different programs, The Venture Mentoring Service, The MIT Sandbox Fund, and the Post-Doctoral Program. As a mentor I’m sure I get more out of it than I give: the brainpower, creativity, and drive of the students and alumni I mentor are energizing. I tell people that I’m like an RFID chip. Alone, I’m can be passive. But the powerful rays of energy radiating from an entrepreneur energize me just like an RFID chip is energized when struck by radio waves.

Mr. Freedman sees older people as uniquely suited for a mentoring role:

“The critical skills for nurturing relationships — emotional regulation and empathy — blossom as we age.” And, of course, those who are retired also have more time to devote to younger people, be they grandchildren, neighbors or strangers.

This is probably why I see so many gray haired heads at the monthly VMS mentors meeting!

But we do have some younger mentors, and there is no reason why young people can’t be mentors. In fact my 98-year old mother has been mentored in the use of her Apple iPad by Babsonn College students, who visit her at her continuing care retirement community. She raves about them all as being knowledge, patient, and helpful.

The key to mentoring is what I consider the purpose of life: gain personal satisfaction through helping others. It only took until age 60 for me to realize this! And ever since I’ve found that mentoring entrepreneurs is the best way I have to help others.

Through my successful ventures and the many more failures, I’ve learned a lot about mistakes to be avoided by founders and tell my mentees, “Please be creative, don’t  repeat my mistakes, invent your own!”

What survives us is the impact we have on others. There is no point in being the richest person in the cemetery, but having been the most influential would be worth striving for.